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What is project management? Mention the Most useful Project Management Tools and Techniques for writing a research proposal

What is Project Management?

Project management involves the application of skills, knowledge, deliverables, tools, and techniques for the purpose of creating a solid path for achieving success in a project. In order to meet goals and requirements, the most suitable option is to have a concrete project marketing assignment help plan. Project management does the primary function of planning and organizing a company's resources for heading towards a specific task, duty, or event. Herein, there can be a one-time project or a continuous activity, and the resources involved can be intellectual property, personnel, financial, and technological.

Sectors, where project management is used very often, are construction and engineering, and recently, IT and healthcare also indulge in this task. They consist of a complex set of tools and techniques that are required to be performed in a defined manner to get a functioning product. Irrespective of the type of company, project management has the same job in all of these fields, that is, to help determine the aims and objectives of a project and details about its completion. It helps in creating quality control checks and ensures jobs do comply with the standards. Basically, project management consists of planning, execution, check control, and winding up of the project. For effective project management, there are various methodologies and techniques prevalent that include traditional, lean, agile, and waterfall.

Every project in any business needs a detailed plan for easing its entire process from start to end. This plan formulates various strategies and provides guidelines about the conduct of required operations in that project. For example, in the sector of architecture, the plan is started with an idea, thereby towards drawings and heads on to blueprint drafting, along with numerous minute details compiling up. An architect does the function of providing a single piece of the puzzle, whereas, the project manager puts every piece together. In general, every project has a budget and a stipulated time. Project management maintains smooth functioning of every task along with adherence to the time and budgetary aspects.

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Most useful project management tools and techniques for writing a research proposal:

1. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS):

WBS is used to divide project activities into small pieces so that the team can understand and complete every task easily. WBS can be used as both technique and tool for project management. It helps in understanding all the tasks and resources that are essential for producing final deliverables. To get started with WBS, the final deliverable should be defined by the project, thereafter the tasks should be described in a detailed manner that will be required by team members to complete the job. The tasks should be segregated into work packages. The process of dividing should go on to the extent it can be divided into as small packages as possible.

2. Waterfall/Liner:

This is a traditional and one of the oldest techniques for project management. Here, activities and tasks involved in the project go through 5 phases:

  • Documentation of requirements
  • Designing of various tasks
  • Implementation
  • Monitoring and verification
  • Maintenance and alterations if necessary

The waterfall method immensely helps for projects that have distinct phases. These kinds of projects require negligible iterations in their entire project life cycle. It is advisable, not to use this technique when modification and re-discussing are necessary for the project. To get started with this Waterfall, prepare a list of resources that will be required in each phase. The most important element in the success of a project is to prepare well. Preparation is the key, therefore, take utmost care to include every important aspect during the project initiation phase.

3. Gantt Charts:

This technique emphasizes visuality. The team is required to create a visual representation of every task in order to wrap up the work. This visualization is done in various repetitive chunks of time. Doing this provides a clear picture of every peculiarity related to the task, how long will each task take? How will the duration affect start dates and deadlines? All these questions get answered very comprehensively with this technique. Gantt charts can be used as a standalone project management technique and also as an organizational tool. Gantt chart views are provided in almost every project management tool and you are only supposed to enter the data, further visualization would be obtained in no time. If WBS is applied before this technique, the tasks can be defined more accurately.

4. Critical Path Method (CPM):

The Critical Path Method is used for scheduling all project activities in an accurate and well-defined manner. In this technique, the critical path is calculated, that path should be the shortest route to the arrangement of tasks and project completion. For establishing task dependencies, this is a great methodology. The shortest amount of time, the longest amount of time, and the realistic amount of time, all can be calculated with CPM. This technique is very apt for complex projects that contain a lot of task dependencies. It can be used both as a technique and tool. To get started with CPM, all the required tasks should be defined and the task dependencies should be established. Diagrams can also be used for estimating different duration’s requirements.

5. Kanban:

This is a very simple yet effective project management technique. First-time project managers usually rely on this technique, its entire philosophy includes a to-do list, doing status, and record of things done. Three columns are prepared for each category, and the team can simply shift from one column to another after the completion of every task. It is a stand-alone project management technique as well as a tool. This is effective for simpler projects or teams that are well versed in multitasking. Kanban boards are made by visual project management software. These can be used and then a list can be prepared about every task followed by assigning them to team members. When a certain task is completed, it is moved to the ‘Done’ column.

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